Most analog electronic appliances, such as radio receivers, are constructed from combinations of a few types of basic circuits. Digital circuits make extensive use of transistors, interconnected to create logic gates that provide the functions of Boolean logic: AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR and all possible combinations thereof. Analog circuitry is constructed from two fundamental building blocks: series and parallel circuits. Vacuum tubes (Thermionic valves) were one of the earliest electronic components. The ability of electronic devices to act as switches makes digital information processing possible. Digital circuitry is used to create general purpose computing chips, such as microprocessors, and custom-designed logic circuits, known as application-specific integrated circuit (ASICs).
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